The term ‘Bio-medical Waste’ includes any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or research activities pertaining thereto, or in the production or testing of biologicals or in health camps, including the categories mentioned in Schedule 1 of the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016.
In addition, biomedical waste includes similar kind of waste that are generated at household level, due to health care offered at household level eg dialysis at home, self administration of insulin injections and restorative care.
Healthcare services which aim at aim of health care services is to reduce potential risks to health and reduce health problems in humans. Activities undertaken to achieve this aim generate biomedical waste that in itself is hazardous to health and has a potential to cause injuries and spread infections. Therefore to minimize risks to human and environmental health it is important that safe methods of handling, disposal and treatment are instituted.
A : Yellow
B : Red
C : White
Containment is the method of treatment where segregated waste is contained in appropriate colour coded containers till its final disposal so that it does not cause any harm to human or environment.
Four colours - Yellow, Red, White and Blue
White (Translucent) Puncture proof, Leak proof, Tamper proof containers.
Under the 2016 rules, chemical disinfection has not been mentioned at the level of HCF. However, at HCF, a disinfectant can be added to ensure safety before sending to CBWTF. But at CBWTF, autoclaving followed by shredding and mutilation is done before sending for encapsulation with cement concrete. As a good practice, it would be better to chemically treat with hypochlorite waste before sending to CBWTF.
Yes. Microbiology, biotechnology and other clinical laboratory waste needs to be pre-treated at HCF either by Autoclave/ Microwave/ Hydroclave and then sent for Incineration.
The operator of CBWTF generally provides the vehicle for the transport of bio-medical waste from the healthcare facility.
The municipal body of the area picks up and transports segregated general solid waste generated in hospitals and nursing homes.
Cap, mask, face shield, gown, gumboots and heavy duty gloves
Bio-medical waste must be stored so that it avoids being mixed with other general waste. The access to it must be limited to personnel authorized to handle it. The areas used for storage must be constructed of materials that are impermeable and can be easily maintained in a sanitary condition.
Immediate treatment and disposal are ideal procedures to be followed for disposal of bio- medical waste. Storage of infectious waste should not exceed 48 hours.
Yes, as per BMWM rules 2016, it is the duty of the occupier to ensure provision of temporary storage room area within the hospital premises.
No. Mercury is considered as hazardous waste and should not be disposed of with bio-medical waste even if contaminated by bio-medical waste. It must be stored in a separate container half filled with water in a storage area in the health facility and must be handed over to a hazardous waste treatment facility.
No. As soon as there is a mercury spill, evacuate the area and call trained personnel in the health care facility to help clean-up the spill so as to ensure proper use of PPE and steps in cleaning up.
Only those trained and authorised to handle the spill must be involved in cleaning the spill.
Definitely, yes. To prevent any infection to the health care worker, all PPE must be worn while handling any spill.
Infectious liquid waste needs to be chemically treated with 1% to 2% Sodium Hypochlorite for a contact period of 20 mins and then let to general sewer
Different sorts of gowns and coveralls have distinctive measures for opposing the infiltration of body liquids and infections. It is important to choose the garment that meets the recommended specifications based on the patient’s clinical status and activities being performed. While a garment may be labeled as “fluid-resistant” that does not mean it will provide resistance to blood, body fluids or viruses. Regardless of specification, protective garments must be used correctly in order to ensure intended protection.
CDC recommends that a health care worker wear an apron over their gown or coveralls any time a patient is vomiting or has diarrhoea. An apron is recommended in those circumstances to minimize the soiling of underlying PPE and provide an easily discarded layer if the apron becomes soiled. An apron should also be used routinely if the facility is using a coverall that has an exposed, unprotected zipper in the front. If there is significant soiling of the PPE, the health care worker should leave the patient care area and take off the PPE in the doffing area under the observation of a trained observer. Proceeding to work in equipment that is soiled creates added risks for contamination.
As per BMW rules, it is the duty of the employer to ensure that he/she supplies the necessary PPEs and also ensure that the waste handlers use it whenever indicated.
Since slides are made of glass they should be put in the cardboard box with blue marking which will finally be sent for autoclaving and recycling.
Two bin strategy is used in emergences in the initial phase. The strategy is to contain and segregate sharps form the other types of waste.
Rapid assessment is the first step in the waste management in emergencies. Information regarding available resources, quantum and types of waste generated can be gathered by rapid assessment.
Every occupier or operator handling bio-medical waste, irrespective of the quantity shall make an application in Form II to the prescribed authority i.e. State Pollution Control Board and Pollution Control Committee for grant of authorisation.
It helps in providing the documentary evidence required for managerial decision making and detection of problems, loopholes in the system.
All the concerned documents and reports related to BMWM should be maintained for five years.